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The following directions for butter making are obtained from Farmers' Bulletin 241, entitled "Butter Making on the Farm," by E. H. Webster M. S. (around 1900)

making Butter

It is needless to say that all the milk utensils should be kept scrupulously clean. There should be no hidden places in milk vessels. Wooden vessels should not be tolerated under any condition for holding milk, for it is impossible to keep them clean. A little ordinary sal soda and a little borax is a cheap and effective cleansing agent. A brush should be used in preference to a cloth. The final rinsing of dairy vessels should be in boiling hot water. The milk should not be allowed to stand in a barn after it is drawn, as it readily absorbs odors. It should not be placed in a cellar or eave where there are decaying vegetables or fruits, as it will quickly absorb the odors úrom them. Full instructions for using the milk separator will be found in the pamphlet to which we refer. Detailed information relative to the operation of separator) comes with each machine. Up to the time of ripening the cream the dairyman has been trying to keep it as free as possible from bacteria and to cheek the growth of all that may get into it, but from this point on the work will be quite different. Cream prepared with the aid of a separator should be perfeetly sweet, and if cooled properly will remain so for a number of hours, and in feet it ean be preserved for four or five days if kept at a temperature of 60 degrees F. It may be churned in this condition and the quality of the butter made that is in demand in a limited way, but, practically speaking, all butter used in this country is churned from sour cream. Sweet cream hutter to most users tastes flat and insipid.

The trouble with ordinary souring is that it may not be the desirable kind. It must be handled in such a way that desirable flavors will be developed and the undesirable ones kept in check. This can only be accomplished with a perfectly sweet cream and afterward controlling the souring process. This control is secured by introducing into the cream what is known as a "starter," which is nothing more nor less than nicely soured milk either whole or skimmed. It will contain those varieties of bacteria which will develop the flavors wanted and not those which cause putrefaction, gassy fermentation and similar undesirable changes. To secure a starter containing suitable bacteria the dairyman has simply to set away a portion of skim milk as it comes from the separator. If the milk is kept at a temperature of 70 to 80 degrees F. it should sour within twenty-four hours and form a solid curd. A test of this curd shows whether or not the dairyman has kept his milk clean. If the taste is found pleasant and mildly acid, and the curd readily breaks when poured from one vessel to another, he has a good starter. On the other hand, if the curd is stringy and will not break with a square, sharp cleavage, but seems to be granular, or if a clear w hey is found on the surface, it shows that bacteria of a harmful species are present. If the souring continues too long too much acid is formed, the starter becomes sharp and unfit for use.

A glass jar is the best vessel in which to make a starter, as the glass is easily cleaned and the butter maker ean see what action is taking place v.hile the milk is souring. If there are gas-produeing germs in the milk little bubbles will form in the bottom and along the sides of the jar. If these are formed the starter should not be used as the effcet will not be good.

If one is churning every day, about 1 to It/2 gal. of starter to 10 gal. of eream is the right proportion. If the eream is cooled to about 00Ý F. it will require more starter than if it is set at 70 degrees F. If the cream is not to be churned every day, but must be held from two to four days before enough is secured for ehurning, a small amount of starter may be added to the first batch of cream or the cream may be held sweet from two to four milkings and the starter added in a larger quantity.

Whole milk ean be used for a starter instead of skim milk, but it is considered better to use the latter. The surface of the starter should be skimmed off for one half inch in depth and thrown away. This is to prevent the possibility of dust and the formation of colonies of undesirable bacteria. There are various types of churns, the barrel churn being one of the best. In this form of churn the concussion of the cream necessary to do the churning is secured by the falling of the cream as the churn is revolved. The faster it is revolved the greater the number of concussions per minute will be secured. If the churn is whirled too fast the centrifugal force created holds the cream from falling so that no churning takes place. Wooden churns should be kept scrupulously clean.

The process of churning is the gathering into a mass the butter fats of the cream. Butter fat exists in the cream in minute globules, each independent of the others, and any agitation tends to bring them together, the force of the impact causing them to adhere to each other. As the agitation is continued these small particles of butter grow larger by the addition of other particles until a stage is reached where they become visible to the eye, and if the churning is continued a sufficient length of time all will be united in one lump of butter in the churn. If the cream is quite warm the butter will come very quickly; if it is too cold the churning may be prolonged for a considerable period. It is usually considered that about 30 to 35 minutes' churning should bring the butter. This time will be varied somewhat according to the temperature of the different seasons. It is necessary in hot weather to churn at a temperature as low as 50 or 55 degrees F., while in the winter months, when the cows are on dry feed and the weather is cold, it is often necessary to raise the churning temperature to 60 or 65 degrees. It is important to know at just what point to stop churning. The butter granules should be the size of beans or grains of corn, possibly a little larger. The churning is then stopped and the buttermilk allowed to drain. After the buttermilk is well drained from the butter granules an amount of water about equal in volume and of the same temperature as the buttermilk should be added and the churn given four or five revolutions slowly, so that the water will come in contact with every particle of butter and wash out the remaining buttermilk. As soon as the wash water is drained from the butter granules salt should be added, depending upon the demands of the consumer. Usually one ounce of salt for each pound of butter is all that will be required. In the ordinary barrel churn the salt may be added in the churn. By giving the churn a few revolutions the salt will be quite thoroughly incorporated with the butter. It should be allowed to stand for a few minutes until the salt becomes more or less dissolved before working of the butter is begun.

For working butter some form of table should be used. The old bowl and paddle will never give good results, because the butter will be greasy owing to the sliding motion of tbe paddle over the butter. If the salt and butter have been mixed in thc churn t'he butter ean be placed on the working table and the working begun at once.

After the butter has been pressed out with the roller it should be divided in the center, one part being laid over onto the other and the rollers passed over again. The process should be repeated until the butter assumes what is termed a waxy condition. If the working is continued for too long a time the butter will become salvy having the appearance of lard, and will lose its granular structure, becoming weak-bodied. The firmness of the butter must be taken into account in determining how long it should be worked. Usually the firmer the butter the more working it will stand and the more time it will need to thoroughly incorporate the salt and bring out the waxy condition.

Testing Saltiness While Working.- During the process of working, the butter should be tested frequently to determine its saltiness, and if by mistake too much salt has been added it ean readily be removed from the butter by pouring a little cold water over it as the working eontinues. The water washes out the excess of salt. If the butter should contain too little salt, more can readily be added during the process of working. It is best practice to about half finish the working and then let the butter stand for about twenty minutes or half an hour before completing. This gives the salt an additional chance to dissolve and there is less liability of mottles in the finished product.

Mottles, Remedy for. - If after standing a few hours the butter is found to show a mottled appearance this ean be overcome by putting it on tte worker and giving it an additional working. The mottled appearance indicates that some step in the working of the butter has not been thoroughly done. It is due to an uneven distribution of salt and possibly to the presence of easein that has not been washed from the butter, the action of the salt on the occasion forming lighter spots in the butter. The best remedy for mottles is to thoroughly wash the butter when it is in granular form before the salt is added and then to work it until it teas reached the waxy condition alluded to. Butter in Tubs. - If the butter is to be put up in tubs, the packing should be so done that the butter will be solid through out its entire mass. Too frequently the butter is thrown in without sufficient packing and large holes will appear in the body of the butter. While these may not affect the quality they affect the appearance. If a parchment paper lining is used in the tub it should be put in smooth and the top should be turned neatly over the edge of the butter. Coverings that are put on the top, whether circles of parchment or cloth made for the purpose, should exactly fit the top of the package Care should be taken that the tub does not show finger marks or other dirty spots.

Butter in Small Packages. - It is becoming more common for the markets to demand that butter be paeked in small packages, such as pound prints or squares. Butter put up in this form should be neatly wrapped in parchment paper. It is an excellent idea for the dairyman to have his name or label printed on the parchment. This helps to establish the identity of the goods, which, if properly made, should aid the dairyman in finding a permanent market for them. Wooden packages of almost any size ean be secured for packing the prints. These should be used, particularly if it is necessary to ship the butter to market. For local distribution light crates or boxes which will fit the prints and prevent them from getting out of shape in hauling should be used.

Refrigerator Boxes.- In the summer months it is a hard matter to transport butter from the dairy to the market and keep the prints in shape, unless the dairyman has ice for this purpose. Light refrigerator boxes are manufactured which can be used to great advantage, as their use will keep the butter hard and firm and enable the maker to deliver it in that condition to his customers in the hottest weather. No one likes to buy a parcel of butter that is so soft that it ean hardly be handled, and the good dairyman will not attempt to place butter on the market in that condition.

The Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S Department of Agriculture, published a Circular No. 56 "Facts Concerning the History, Commeree and Manufacture of Butter," by Harry Hayward.

Other information may be obtained from Farmers' Bulletins, Nos. 84, 92 ]31, 201, 237, 349 and 381. The entire subject is being gone into by the Department of Agriculture and the bulletins may be obtained, when completed, from that source.

Coloring Butter.

1.-Use a little annatto, if pure it ia not injurious.

2.-The coloring matters commonly employed are annatto and turmeric or extracts of these, but there are also a number of butter-coloring compounds or mixtures sold for this purpose. For some of these it is claimed that they will not only impart the desired color to butter but will keep it sweet and fresh for an indefinite time. The following are a few of these coloring compounds in use at present Rorick's compound is prepared as follows: The materials for 1000 lb. of butter are: Lard, butter or olive oil 6 lb.; annatto, 6 oz.; turmeric, 1 oz., salt, 10 oz., niter, 2-5 oz., bromochloralum, 3 1/2 oz.; water, q. s. The lard butter or oil is put into a pan and heated in a water bath. The annatto and turmeric are then stirred into a thin paste with water, and this is gradually added to the fatty or oily matters kept at a temperature of about 110 degrees F. The salt and niter are next stirred in and the mixture heated to boiling. The heating is continued for from twelve to twenty-four hours or until the color of the mixture becomes dark enough. The bromoehloralum is then introduced and the mass is agitated until cold, when it is put up in sealed cans.

3.-Bogart's preparation is prepared as follows: The materials employed are Annattoin, 5 oz., turmeric (pulverized) 6 oz.; saffron, 1 oz.; lard oil, 1 pt.; butter, 5 lb. The butter is first melted in a pan over the water bath and strained through a fine linen cloth. The saffron is made into a 1/2 pt. tincture, and, together with the turmeric and annattoin, is gradually stirred into the hot butter and oil and boiled and stirred for about fifteen minutes. It is then strained through a cloth as before and stirred until cool.

4.-Dake's butter coloring is prepared by heating a quantity of fresh butter for some time with annatto, by which means the coloring matter of the butter is extracted, and straining the colored oil and stirring it until cold.

5.-The following is commended in a German agricultural journal: Alum, pulverized finely, 30 parts; extract of turmeric, 1 part. With the extract dampen the powder as evenly as possible, then spread out and dry over some hot surface. When dry again pulverize thoroughly Protect the product from the light. As much of the powder as will lie on the point of a penknife is added to a churnful of milk 01- cream before churning, and it gives, says the authority on the subject a beautiful golden color, entirely harmless. To make the extract of turmeric add 1 part of powdered turmeric to 5 parts of alcohol and let macerate together for fully a week.

6.-Ethereal extract annatto, 1 oz., oil (olive or cottonseed), 100 oz.

7.-Purified annatto, powdered, 10 oz. oil, 100 oz. Digest for two hours in a steam or water bath, allow to stand for one week, then decant. Of either of the above liquids 6 drops added to 1 quart of cream is sufficient.

8.-Annattoin, 5 av.oz., powdered turmeric, 6 av.oz., true saffron, 1 av.oz. odorless lard oil, 10 fl.oz.; alcohol, 4 fl.oz. Rub the annattoin and turmeric with the oil, which may be deodorized by filtration through charcoal and macerate for several days. Prepare a tincture with the alcohol and saffron. After a sufficient maceration separate the solids from the oil by filtration, adding more oil through the filter to keep the measure, and mix the tincture of saffron with this, driving off the alcohol by a gentle heat.

Of late coal-tar dyes are being largely introduced for the same purpose. They are mostly azo dyes and are sold specifically as butter dyes. However, they are not recommended.

9.-Odorless Coloring.-Annatto, ,1/2 oz., sodium bicarbonate, 1 1/2 oz., sugar 8 oz.; potassium nitrate, 8 oz. Soften the annatto with about 2 oz. water, using the heat of a water bath. Stir in about 2 oz. of the sodium bicarbonate, evaporate to dryness and mix with the remainder of the soda and the other ingredients.

10.-MacEwan, in his "Pharmaceutical Formulas," states that vegetable annatto is being replaced by aniline orange, the following being recommended as a popular coloring: Oil-soluble aniline orange 1 oz.; olive oil, 100 fl.oz. Dissolve the color in the oil by gentle warming. Cottonseed oil may be used in place of olive oil. A teaspoonful of the coloring is sufficient for 10 gal. of cream.

Deterioration of Butter.

Butter fat, and therefore butter, is very unstable and it is therefore very liable to deterioration which, if it continues, renders it unfit for food. The butter loses color; it develops a tallowy taste and odor. As the deterioration progresses the texture changes from a firm or a solid to a pasty mass. When this stage is reached it is fit only for soap grease.

Butter may be kept stored at a low temperature and in a dark place from six to eight months. To protect butter which is shipped to tropical countries it is often made from preserved cream and packed in hermetically sealed cans.

While butter cannot be prevented from deteriorating without the use of chemicals, which is forbidden under the Pure Food Law, much can be done to retard this deterioration by handling it in all stages of its production under the most cleanly condition, by preserving the cream with which it is made by guarding it against infection, by packing it in airtight packages and holding it at low temperatures or in darkness.

Butter that is put in packages of greater size than the brick or print form will hold its flavor longer than the smaller packages. Prints and pats which are pleasing to the eye must be uncommonly well wrapped so as to make an almost air-tight package. Glass or glazed earthenware butter jars should be used in all households.

Substitutes for Butter.

At the present time there are three commercial substitutes for butter. These are oleomargarine, butterine and renovated butter.

Butterine is oleomargarine with which is mixed more or less butter. This is a purely commercial term and is not recognized by law. All "butterine" is legally oleomargarine.

"Renovated butter" is made from lots of butter which have been subjected to a process by which it is melted, clarified and refined for the purpose of removing rancidity or any deleterious flavors, or of otherwise improving the rendering uniform miscellaneous lots of butter which could not find a profitable market without (More to follow)

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Copyright 1997 by Ed Sanders.