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Table of Substitutes

Below is a list of letters frequently used as substitutes to represent several of the elements as given in the first table. The learner should first name the substitute, next the element it represents, and then the example in which it is combined. Thus, ei is a substitute for a (long a) as in the word vein, and so forth.

ei = a as in vein

ey = a as in they

e = a as in sergeant

ou = a as in bought
i = e as in marine

a = e as in any

ai = e as in said

u = e as in bury
y = i as in spy

y = i as in hymn

e = i as in english

ee = i as in been
o = i as in women

u = i as in busy

ew = o as in sew

eau = o as in beau
au = o as in hautboy

a = o as in what

ew = u as in new

iew = u as in view
io = u as in nation

eo = u as in surgeon

y = u as in Myrtle

e = u as in her
i = u as in sir

o = u as in son

oo = u as in blood

o = u as in wolf
oo = u as in wool

ow = ou as in now

u = w as in persuasion

o = wu as in one
i = y as in onion

u = yu as inuse

ph = f as in phrase

gh = f as in laugh
d = j as in soldier

g = j as in gem

c = k as in cat

ch = k as in chord
gh = k as in hough

q = k as in quart

c = s as in cent

f = v as in of
ph = v as in Stephen

c = z as in suffice

s = z as in his

x = x as in xanthus
x = ks as in wax

cho = kw as in choir

n = ng as in anger

c = sh as in ocean
s = sh as in sure

ch = sh as in chaise

t = sh as in notion

g = zh as in rouge
s = zh as in osier

x = gz as in exact