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Phonics Index

Introduction

Instructions for Instructors

Phonics Rules

Silent Letter Rules (13 Rules)

 Slate Work

Table of Substitutes

Printable Table of Substitute Combinations

Printable Table of Substitutes

Sir Buxton Story

Children's Stories Index

The Flower Story

Phonics outside links

History Index.

edsanders.com Dictionary

Rule 1. A clear and distinct articulation should be given to the elementary sounds employed in vocal utterance.

In the following table, the letters of the alphabet are divided into three classes, or kinds, viz: vocals, sub-vocals, and aspirates.

These are all the classes necessary for practical purposes; and any further division or classification, it is believed, would only tend to confuse and perplex the learner, and thus render the study of the exercise tedious and irksome to young pupils, if it did not, indeed, place it entirely beyond their comprehension. In accordance, therefore, with this simple and natural division, the letters are conveniently arranged on one page, and afford the pupil an interesting and intelligible exercise in enunciating the elementary sounds which they severally represent. The pupil should be drilled upon this table until he can not only readily distinguish the peculiarity of each sound when given by others, but can also enunciate it with perfect ease and clearness himself.

Sanders' Compendium Home Page and Index.

Table of Elementary Sounds.

Note. - Let the class, either individually or in concert, first pronounce the word containing the element, and then the element by itself, varying the intensity of the voice as the teacher may think proper ; thus, ale, a, arm, a, all, a, etc.


Vocals.

Name   Power



1   A     Ale



2   A     Arm   



3   A     All     



4   A     At



5   E     Eat 



6   E     Bet



7   I      Ice



8   I      It



9   O     Ode



10 O     Do



11 O     Ox



12 U     Sue 



13 U     Up



14 U     Full



15 Ou   Out




Sub-Vocals.



Name.   Power



16  B     Ebb



17  D     Odd



18  G     Egg



19  J, G  Jet



20  L      Ill



21  M     Him



22  N      Run



23  R      Bur



24  V      Ev



25  W     Woe



26  Y      Yet



27  Z, S  Buzz



28  Z      Azure



29  Th    Thy



30  Ng    Sing 




Aspirates.



Name     Power



31  P       Up



32  T       It



33  K, C  Ark



34  Ch     Much



35  H       He



36  F        If



37  Wh     When



38  S, C   Sin



39  Sh      Fish



40  Th      Thin




Note.-In this table, each vocal element is combined in words with all the sub-vocals and aspirates which is known to combine in the language. The class may be required to pronounce these words in an explosive and forcible utterance, both individually and in concert, until the highlighted letters can be easily and perfectly articulated in combination.

1. The sound of a long; as in bate, date, fate, gate, hate, jane, kale, lade, mate, nape, pate, rate, sate, tame, vane, wave, yate, gaze, chain, thane, lathe, shape, whale.

2. a flat, or Italian; as in bar, dark, garb, hark, jar, car, lark, mar, nard, par, raft, salve, tar, vast, waft, yarn, czar, char, lath, father, sharp.

At the time this was written there were conflicts between Webster and Worchester, both of which were in the dictionary business.

(Worchester regards the sound of a in the words raft, vast, waft, lath, intermediate between that of a in fat and a in far. But the sound of a in this class of words, though not quite so much prolonged, is considered by Dr. Webster to be radically the same as it is in far, daunt, etc.; and hence we have put all such words in the same class here.)

3. a broad as; in ball, dawn, fall, gall, haw, jaw, kaw, law, mall, gnaw, pall, raw, saw, tall, vault, wall, yawl, gauze, chalk, thaw, shawl, wharf.

4. a short; as in bat, dash, fat, gat, hat, jam, cat, lad, mat, nap, pat, rat, sat, tan, van, wax, yam, azoth, chap, sang, thank, that, shall, whack.

5. e long; as in be, deep, feet, geese, he, jeer, key, lee, need, peat, reel, see, teem, veer, we, yee, zeal, cheer, theme, thee, she, wheel.

6. e short; as in bet, den, fen, get, hen, jet, ken, let, met, net, pet, rest, set, ten, vex, wet, yet, zed, check, theft, then, shed, when.

7. i long; as in bite, dine, fine, guide, hive, gibe, kite, line, mine, nine, pine, ripe, site, tine, vine, size, chime, thigh, thine, shine, white.

8. i short; as in bit, din, fin, gimp, hit, jib, kit, lid, mix, nit, pin, rio, sit, tin, vill, wit, zinc, chin, sing, thin, with, shin, whit.

9. o long; as in bolt, dome, foe, go, hole, joke, coke, lone, mote, note, pole, rope, sole, tone, vote, wove, joke, zone, choke, thole, those, shoal.

10. o middle; as in boot, do, food, goom, hoot, coop, lose, move, noose, pool, roost, soup, too, woo, ooze, cartouch, tooth, shoe.

11. o short; as in bot, dot, fox, got, hot, jot, cot, lot, mop, not, pop, rot, sot, top, novel, wot, yon, zocco, chop, ssong, thong, pother, shot, whop.

12. u long; as in bugle, due, fume, hue, june, cue, lute, mute, nude, pule, rule, sue, tune, yule, zumie, truth, sure.

(In the words rule, truth, sure, Worchester sounds the u like o in move. But the best speakers, in Dr. Webster's view, give only a slight softening between the vocal and sub-vocal or aspirate, pronouncing the u, in all this class of words, in a less broad and open manner than the o in move, thus giving the letter its distinctive elementary sound.)

13. u short; as in but, dust, fun, gun, hut, just, cull, lull, must, nut, pun, sup, tun, vulgar, yucca, buzz, shub, sung, thumb, thus, shut, whur.

14. u middle; as in bush, pudding, full, sugar, could, bull, pull, put, would, butcher, should.

15. ow and ou; as in bow, down, fowl, gout, how, jounce, cow, loud, mount, noun, pout, rout, south, town, vouch, wound, mouth, thou, shout.

Note.- This table embraces a great variety of the combinations of the sub-vocals and aspirates; and it is recommended that the class be frequently exercised in the pronounciation of them, both individually and in concert. The letters before the colon and dash indicate the sound to be given to the combinations underlined, whose elements are to be clearly and distinctly uttered.



1. Bd:- sobbed, robed.



Bl:- blood, blind, able, feeble.



Bld:- fabled, dabbled, trembled, tumbled.



Blz:- rambles, pebbles, rumbles, bubbles.



Br:- brain, brown, bright, brick.



Bz:- describes, cubs, clubs.



2. Ch:- pitch, much, chimney.



3. Dl:- cradle, idle, middle.



Dld:- kindled, fondled, huddled.



Diz:- candles, paddles, riddles.



Dn:- sadden, ridden, golden.



Dr:- dream, dress, drive, drew.



Dst:- coveredst, amidst.



Dz:-  trades, weeds, sleds, sides.



4. Fl:- flame, fling, baffle, trifle.



Flz:- baffles, trifles.



Fn:- often, soften.



Fr:- frame, frank, friend.



Fs:- laughs, griefs.



Ft:- abaft, left, lift, soft.



Fth:- fifth.



Fts:- gifts, lifts, drifts.





5. Gd:- gragged, begged.



Gl:- gleams, glide, glory, struggle.



Gld:- tangled, mingled, struggled.



Glz:- eagles, jungles, struggles.



Gr:- grown, grand, agreed, regret.



Gz:- rags, eggs, trigs, exert.





6. Jd:- engaged, discouraged, obliged, hedged, dodged, lodged.





7. Kl:- clad, clean, club, circle, sparkle.



Klz:- sparkles, articles, spectacles.



Kn:- taken, forsaken, broken.



Kr:- creep, creek, crying.



Ks:- sacks, cheeks, necks, bricks, looks.



Kt:- expect, looked, locked, picked.



Kts:- acts, facts, insects.



Kst:- next, fixed, mixed.



Ksth:- sixth.





8. Lb:- bulb, bulbous.



Ld:- failed, crawled, told, child.



Ldz:- fields, wilds, shields.



Lf:- half, self, wolf.



Lj:- indulge, divulge.



Ljd:- indulged, divulged.



Lk:- milk, silk, bulk, skulk.



Lks:- siLKS, sulks.



Lkt:- Milked, skulked.



Lm:- helmless, elm, film.



Lmz:- overwhelms, helms, elms.



Ln:- fallen, swollen, stolen.



Lp:- help, yelp.



Lps:- helps, scalps.



Lpt:- scalped, helped.



Ls:- false, else, convulse.



Lst:- convulsed.



Lt:- fault, felt, bolt, result.



Lth:- health, wealth, filth.



Lts:- melts, colts, results.



Lv:- solve, twelve, resolve.



Lvd:- delved, resolved.



Lvz:- ourselves, wolves, involves.



Lz:- balls, miles, angels, jewels.





9.  Md:- benumbed, dimmed, dreamed, formed,

ashamed, slammed, assumed.



Mf:- triumph, nymph.



Mp:- lamp, jump, pump.



Mps:- glimpse, camps.



Mt:- stamped, tempt, prompt.



Mts:- attempts.



Mz:- claims, beams, gems, comes, limbs.





10. Nch:- branches, Quenches, benches.



Ncht:- drenched, pinched. 



Nd:- land, fond, mind.



Ndz:- hands, kinds, winds, pounds.



Ng:- sing, young, wrong.



Ngd:- belonged.



Nk:- drank, think, sunk.



Nks:- banks, flanks, thanks, anxious.



Nkt:- thanked, planked.



Ngth:- length, strength.



Ngth:- lengthen, strengthen.



Ngz:- hangs, belongs, stings.



Nj:- revenge, plunge.



Njd:- fringed, tinged, revenged.



Nkt:- distinct, extinct.



Nt:- want, sent, hunt.



Nths:- months, hyacinths.



Nts:- wants, events, tints, accounts.



Ns:- dance, expense, intense.



Nst:- against, chanced, convinced.



Nz:- pains, means, bones, ones.





11.Pl:- play, simple, reply.



Pld:- trampled, dimpled.



Plz:- apples, examples, principles.



Pn:- open, deepen.



Pr:-pray, price, prime.



Ps:- lips, drops, types, hoops.



Pt:- kept, stooped, clipped.



Pth:- depth.



Pts:- precepts.





12. Rb:- warbling, superb.



Rbd:- disturbed, curbed. 



Rbz:- garbs, orbs, curbs.



Rch:- arch, march, torch.



Rd:- hard, board, furred.



Rdz:- herds, birds, words.



Rf:- scarf, wharf.



Rj:- large, charge, urge.



Rjd:- enlarged, urged.



Rk:- spark, jerk, embark.



Rks:- remarks, lurks, works.



Rkt:- merked, worked.



Rl:- girl, pearl, whirl.



Rld:- world, hurled.



Rldz:- worlds.



Riz:- girls, pearls, whirls.



Rm:- warm, charm, firm.



Rmd:- formed, performed.



Rmth:- warmth.



Rmz:- arms, forms, terms.



Rn:- thorn, mourn, turn.



Rnz:- learns, earns, warns.



Rnd:- learned, burned, adorned.



Rp:- carp, sharp, harp.



Rs:- horse, purse, scarcely.



Rst:- forced, thirst, burst, first.



Rt:- part, short, port.



Rth:- dearth, forth, north.



Rths:- hearths, earths.



Rts:- hearts, forts, sorts.



Rv:- deserve, starve.



Rvd:- served, swerved.



Rvz:- starves, serves.



Rz:- cars, tears, doors.





13.  Sh:- wash, shoot, shouts.



Shr:- shrewd, shrill, shrink, shrub.



Sht:- lashed, wished, rushed.



Sk:- bask, scold, school.



Skr:- screams, scrub, screw.



Sks:- tasks, tusks, husks.



Skt:- asked, frisked, risked.



Sl:- slate, slide, sloop.



Sm:- small, smiled, smoke.



Sn:- snap, snuff, snow, person.



Snz:- persons, lessons.



Sp:- spare, speak, spoil.



Spl:- spleen. splendor.



Spr:- spread, sprightly, spring.



Spt:- clasped, gasped, grasped. 



Sps:- wasps, grasps.



St:- placed, dust, stay, steal, sting.



Str:- straight, strikes, strength.



Sts:- nests, exists, roosts.



Sw:- sweet, swing, swept.





14. Th:- they, though, leather.



Th:- breath, truth, youth.



Thd:- clothed, wreathed, sheathed.



Thr:- thrilled, thrusts, throttle.



Thz:- mouths.



Ths:- faiths.



Tl:- cattle, gentle, littlt, turtle.



Tld:- settled, titled.



Tlz:- battles, nettles, titles.



Tn:- cotton, shorten.



Tr:- trade, trust, paltry.



Ts:- traits, sweets, roots.



Tw:- between, twine.





15. Vd:- saved, perceived, moved.



Vl:- evil, weevil.



Vlz:- evils.



Vz:- waves, leaves, gives.





16. Wh:- what, where, when, while, which, whisper.





17. Zd:- gazed, teased, exposed.



Zl:- puzzle, weasel.



Zld:- puzzled.



Zlz:- Puzzles.



Zn:- frozen, crimson.



Znz:- raisins, seasons, reasons.



Questions: - How should this table be studied?

What do the letters underlined denote?

What is the first combination?

Pronounce the examples.


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Copyright 1997 - 2001 by Ed Sanders.