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Phonics Index


Instructions for Instructors

Phonics Rules

Silent Letter Rules (13 Rules)

 Slate Work

Table of Substitutes

Printable Table of Substitute Combinations

Printable Table of Substitutes

Sir Buxton Story

Children's Stories Index

The Flower Story

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History Index. Dictionary

Our local elementary school uses over 18 pallets of paper a year. If they used slates and computers this waste could be reduced. Below you'll find instructions for the use of slates in the classroom.

You'll find many references to examples on pages of the book this came from. I'm scanning these in and will make them available to you eventually.

SLATE-WORK here begins with Drawing, owing to its importance as an element of education, the gratification it affords learners, and its intimate connection with writing, which should commence at the same time. With beginners, the chief attention must be given to oral exercises and spelling, commencing on page 50. At first, give preparatory aid on every exercise.

MATERIALS FOR SLATE WORK are ample, excellent, and cheap. Noiseless slates, with inches and their parts stamped on the frames, and dotted slates are desirable for beginners, though plain slates of good quality will suffice. Pencils should be long, well sharpened, and soft. Rules marked with inches, and with halves, quarters, and eighths of inches, may be used at first to locate the guide dots and lines, and applied as tests merely. Each pupil should be supplied with a sponge or slate-rag. The Unit of measure for the exercises in drawing and writing, to page 4I, is one-fourth of an inch. For blackboard instruction and exercises, one inch is a desirable unit of measure.

FIELD OF DOTS. Begin at the upper left-hand corner of the slate and make five lines of small guide dots, from left to right, one-fourth inch apart, as on the opposite page, measuring with the eye or a rule. Increase the field of dots only as needed. Use no rule for the drawings. Copy and master each drawing in order, as numbered. Excepting Nos. 8, 21, 22, 29, 31, 32, 42, and 43, the field for each drawing of the first 4 pp. is one square inch. Fill the field, as in the copy, and skip one space and repeat till the result is satisfactory. In drawing, place the pencil point on the commencing dot, look at the dot to be reached, and draw firmly from one to the other. Leave all vacant dots and blanks, as in copy.

CONSTRUCTION AND DEFINITIONS. Aid pupils to understand the development of the system, mainly by stimulating questions, showing, for example, that Nos. 3 and 4, P. 25, are formed from Nos. 1 and 2; No. 5 from B and B of No. 3; No. 7, from Nos. 4 and 5: that Nos. 11, 12, 13, and 14 show acute, obtuse, and right, angles and triangles: that No. 17 contains 6 crosses and 34 right angles; that guide lines aid in forming the octagon, No. 20: that in No. 33, are quadrants; in Nos. 34 and 35, semicircles; in Nos. 39 and 40, ellipses; that No. 30 is formed from No 29; NO. 37, from NOS. 5, 31, and 36; No. 43, from No. 41 and straight lines, and the ornamental band, from half circles, etc. The Definitions, p. 20, should be read, studied, and learned in connection with the drawings which illustrate them. Use guide lines for the 10 drawings of p. 29. The Vignettes of the,

Alphabets, and all Ornamental Headings are designed for general exercises in drawing.


WRITING is one of the most beautiful, and probably the most useful of the arts. In modern teaching it is intimately connected with all the mental exercises of the schooling period. The style of the following copies, as a basis of chirography, is almost universally approved, and it is in general use in American schools. The Unit of measure of the first 68 copies is one-fourth of an inch; of the Alphabets, P. 41, one-eighth of an inch; and of the pages of writing connected with the Sounds, in which guide lines are dispensed with, one-tenth of an inch.

CLASS EXERCISE AND INSTRUCTION. Opportunity is here afforded for individual effort and the improvement of the odds and ends of time. In class Exercises let all work together, do the same thing at the same time, and master each copy in order as numbered. Aid pupils to understand the development of the system, mainly by stimulating questions, showing for example that, of the elemental exercises which commence on the following page, NO. 3 is formed from Nos. 2 and I; that Nos. 4 (found in a, b, d, i, k, 1, r, t, u, w), 5, and 6 are formed from Nos. 1, 2, and a connecting lower turn; that No. 8 (found in n, m, and z) is NO. 4 reversed ; that No. 9 contains all the elements of the first 13 Nos.; that NOS. 7, 12, and 13 have slight modifications to be specially considered; that in No. 14 both sides of the oval are curved alike; that No. 15 (found in a, d, g, q) is an oval modified on the upper right; that oval curves appear in Nos. 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22 ; that No. 24 is used in Nos. 25, 26, 27, 28, 29; that No. 30 (No. 24 reversed) is used in NOS. 31, 32, 34, 35; that in CAPITALS, excepting Nos. 47 and 51, No. 36 is used in NOS. 37 to 52 inclusive ; that No. 53 is used in Nos. 52, 54, 55, 56; and that NO. 58 is used in Nos. 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65. Require the pupils to learn the number of spaces and parts of spaces occupied by each of the small letters and capitals severally, and to compare, contrast, and note all dissimilarities and distinctive characteristics. Train both the eye and the hand alike to discriminate written characters in all their relations and connections.

Copyright 1997 by Ed Sanders.